Questionnaire on awareness about child marriage
This makes us ponder whether some of the cultural factors and attitude towards child marriage practice, unlike social vulnerabilities, are playing a role in the continuation of child marriage practice in Pakistan.
Informed by the evidence to date, we hypothesized that child marriage is associated with lower levels of general health and worse reproductive health outcomes, including higher likelihood of adolescence childbearing and increased child mortality. Footnote 3 We further hypothesized that child marriage is associated with lower levels of agency, lower levels of social support and higher levels of self-perceived stress.
The interviews were open-ended and carried out in a conversational style. In many cases, girls are made to marry the men who got them pregnant, whether they want to or not. The bride price that parents receive upon marriage — often paid in cattle and cash — is also seen as a strategy to reduce poverty.
Negative health consequences of child marriage include poorer maternal and reproductive health, increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, intimate partner violence and maternal mortality [ 78910 ]. About More specifically, we examined the following research question: To what extent is child marriage associated with adverse outcomes, including general health, reproductive health, agency, social support, and stress?
Questionnaire on marriage
Strengthen education and learning environments for girls in rural and urban areas. More specifically, we employed the following six statements: Your life is determined by your own actions; You have the power to make important decisions that change the course of your own life; You have the power to make important decisions that change the wellbeing of your children; You have the power to make important decisions that change the wellbeing of your household; You are capable of protecting your own interests within your household; You are capable of protecting your own interests outside of your household e. Child marriage is also associated with adverse economic outcomes, including lower educational attainment, lower socioeconomic status, and higher rates of poverty [ 12 ]. Reasons for setting the said selection criteria were to make sure that the interviewee had a prenatal and postnatal experience and that they have spent a considerable time in marital union. I have witnessed so many hardships and troubles just because of my child marriage. Contributor Information. Methods Baseline data from on ongoing impact evaluation of a government-run cash transfer programme was used. The remaining 9 interviews Controlling behavior of husbands and in-laws towards women married as children [ 1 , 2 , 9 , 25 ], limited power of women for health-related decisions within the household, and lack of education and media exposure [ 26 ], especially in rural areas may explain why women in our study were not aware of negative health outcomes of child marriages. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Further, participants were recruited from most populous slum areas of Lahore, and may not be representative of other localities and cities of Pakistan. Most participants justified the practice of child marriage by giving reasons such as avoiding social evils, delinquency, and adultery. As I said earlier, girls should be married early. Here is what we learned.
In addition, existing datasets commonly used to study adverse impacts of child marriage, including Demographic and Health Surveys DHS and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys MICSaim to be comparable across countries and thus may not include all of the indicators of interest.
Most of the women live in the Northern region of Ghana, which is also a reflection of the targeting of the cash transfer programme, and a majority of women are in a monogamous marriage or union. Most of the participants in our study were uneducated that may have introduced a bias in the study.
I believe that girls should be married at younger age provided that there is good proposal.
Questionnaire on awareness about child marriage
Ghanaian context In Ghana, a lower-middle-income country, child marriage is prohibited under the constitution and by law. Individual items in the scale have been found to be positively affected by cash and in-kind transfers in Ecuador [ 36 ], and an index using similar questions predicted the level of impatience and demand for commitment and saving in rural Ethiopia [ 37 ]. Therefore, the United Nations highlight the need of reducing child marriage and its effect on maternal and child health through the Millennium Development Goals for improving maternal health, reducing child mortality, and promoting gender equality and women empowerment [ 10 ]. Received Jul 8; Accepted Oct In-depth semi-structured face-to-face individual interviews were conducted and transcribed in a separate room to maintain the privacy of the participants. Although child marriage can occur among males as well, the prevalence is much lower: only 2. But, people are so strange that they marry their daughters without any investigation about a proposal.
Controlling behavior of husbands and in-laws towards women married as children [ 12925 ], limited power of women for health-related decisions within the household, and lack of education and media exposure [ 26 ], especially in rural areas may explain why women in our study were not aware of negative health outcomes of child marriages.
This is based on the percentage of women aged years old who were married before they were 18 years old.
based on 51 review