The test was taken by candidates, 68 of whom were White, 27 of whom were Black, and 23 of which were Hispanic. Other opponents of affirmative action call it reverse discrimination, saying affirmative action requires the very discrimination it is seeking to eliminate.
This would eliminate the need for race-based affirmative action as well as reducing any disproportionate benefits for middle and upper-class people of color.
New Haven did not avoid the dreaded disparate impact lawsuit, as the White and Hispanic firefighters who had scored the highest on the test, yet were passed over for promotion, sued for reverse discrimination.
The loss of undue privilege is not the same thing as the loss of rights. Do these laws compare to affirmative action? Kennedy John F.
Texas was a lawsuit brought by four white applicants to the Texas Law School who were denied admission even though their grade point averages were greater than minority applications that were accepted.
Ability is stretched or stunted by the family that you live with, and the neighborhood you live in—by the school you go to and the poverty or the richness of your surroundings.